Im sorry - this a machines translate .

I wanted to create the essences not similar to me to love and train them that also they too could comprehend beauty Ea

 

J.R.R.Tolkien, Silmarillion (ch. II.)

 

 

Khuzdul - mysterious language of dwarves Middlearth

 

Or some remarks to a question on language of dwarves

 

(* - reconstructed words or the lexemes allocated from of words) are designated

 

 

From the second chapter of "Silmarillion" we learn, that as soon as the Aulë has created Seven Fathers of Dwarves, at that o'clock when work the Aulë was, to its pleasure is completed, and the Aulë started to train dwarves of speech which it(he) has thought up for them .

 

So any narration or research about khuzdul (that, by the way, has been challenged by translator N. Estel who has omitted this extraordinary significant moment in the translation of "Silmarillion", for what to her big respect and more than such SUCCESSFUL translations begins!), well speech not about that. As the name of clause(article) says, speech further will go about khuzdul - mysterious language of dwarves (the author specially used a word "mysterious", instead of "secret" as it is accepted in the majority of publications). Mysterious - it(he) because, about it speak more, than investigate. In most cases it is translations of clause(article) Lisa It is old in Tyalie Tyelellieva, * 4, page 22., with some variations on a theme of native speech: each subsequent tries to draw structure khuzdul to elite him(it) to language; that basically it is not condemned, for by whom it is not forbidden, but finally conducts to impasse.

 

We have selected other way - gnosis, and we consider an object of research from all possible parties, and is equal as with external, and a seamy side. I believe that, trying to glance on "cuisine" of the Professor, we shall not offend drawn games (hardly has not told religious) feelings. As the fanaticism and dogmatism never conducted to the safe decision of problems. Temporarily not concerning an external history of occurrence of Languages, I suggest to look at some curious examples of that, as well as than the Professor was guided, realizing the courageous plans. First of all it is logic of internal development of the world thought up by him(it) and languages, and in the second - logic external: and more subjective, rather than objective since we need to assume only, this or that word whence was born. Probably, even the Professor did not give itself in it the report, and all occurred, that refers to instinctively.

 

* * *

 

As already it was earlier noticed by many my predecessors, the order of word-formation is obviously connected, with a Hebrew and-or language of Kurds. Word-formation, apparently, is taken from a Hebrew with a root basis 123. Here a bright example of such word-formation (though a word of probably Greek origin from pelekys - an axe):

 

Khuzdul

Value

Hebrew

Value

Felek

Adze

Melek

Prince

*Falk

To cut

Malk

To reign

Felak

(It(He)) cuts down cutting

Melak

(It(He)) reigns\rules

*Afalk

Adze

Amalk

Princedom

*Fölek

()

Mölek

() Prince

*Flôkti

(Will cut

Mlôkti

(Will reign

*Felûku

(Is not present) sing.n.

Melûku

(There is no) Prince

*Falkut

Part of Adze

Malkut

Princely

*Flaklak

small adze

Mlaklak

Younger prince

*Flakun

Adzes

Mlakun

Princes

 

From Kurdish (or language close to him) it is taken, obviously, word-formation where the word with a basis 12â3 - is a nominal noun pl.n. A sort. A case, and 1u23 - the form of a singular, names. A case, thus Khazâd it is obvious in a singular of names. A case will be *Khuzd. It proves to be true other example: Rakhâs (orks) and Rukhs (ork). It is possible to offer also, that plural of the Nominative case will look 1u2u3 and according to this - *Khuzud and *Rukhus. Adjectives will look accordingly so: 1u23 + ul - Khuzdul and Rukhsul.

 

Some other pattern to us meets in word Gwedhrin 1e23 + r + in - prospective name Quenya, language Quendi. Curious for us the ending of a word, namely-in certainly is, And previous-r-is suffixal formation as Gwedhrin obviously is not sound reflection Quendi in Khuzdul as the basis of a word meets in a name of queen elfes Gwedhiling from the Gold Book of Forgotten Legends. Thus In this case it would be more logical to assume, that the name elfes Beleriand was received by name by queens elves when dwarves shaped for her various ornaments from gold. I.e. it will be possible to assume that-in to correspond to Russian-in i.e. somebody / something belonging to those / somebody. In our history too there is such example: Kingdom, konung/king - all this derivatives on behalf of Great Charles. Too concerns also the known termination(ending)-ul, having apparently too value as Russian-ii/-, i.e. Specifies an accessory(a belonging) of whom to something: for example khuzd-ul - (language) of dwarves, and nazg-ul - (slave) to a ring. We find a curious parallel in English where exists final-ful. Probably, from here has arisen khuzd.-bul.

 

To us two words with enough not clear ethymology, the first - Sharbhund (the Bald Hill), the second - Urukhtharbûn (the Big Ork are known?-, it probably second case of assimilation in khuzdul, after fela (k) gundin, however communication with a word adûnaic rûkh - "shout" (SD:426)) is probable also). If to assume that in the first case we have sharb + hund that sharb - bald, and hund - a hill. The variant bhund - is erroneous since in dwarves is absent fleeces-bh-, a patterns 12u34 and 12u3 for khuzdul not typical. Etymological conformity of a word sharb can be English shear - to cut.

 

The second word can be spread out as follows: U-rukh (s)-tharbu-un, where us interests echoing a part of a word, and where-un - the ending known to us from words Tharkûn (the Person of the Staff) and Nargûn (the Place of Darkness), and having obviously in Russian corresponding final --un or-oiń. If her(it) to reject, we shall receive Tharb - by analogy to the first obviously having conformity in English Thorough-in value main, exclusive(?). Thus Urukhtharbûn is Big - Ork-Main.

 

In the same list it is possible to put other word - Mazarbul in expression Chamber of Annals. However it hides in itself of more questions, rather than answers. It is obvious, that it the adjective and thus corresponds(meets) in Russian - "Annalistic", and in latin "Annales". As it was already specified, for khuzdul words with a root basis from two or three concordant and one - two vowels are characteristic; in that case Mazarbul it is represented by exception, or, that it is more probable, it is a combination from a prefix, a root of a suffix and the termination(ending): Ma-zar-b-ul. presence in structure of a word-arb-directs at such ideas. However the arab. Mazar - the cemetery matters, and in general concerns to a place esteemed as sacred (usually gravestone construction). Thus, before us again the word-play, in fact there was Balin's tomb. Certainly, it is possible to present with a fair share of imagination that Ma-this hypothetical "Year" + it(him). Thesaurus (from n. About any field of knowledge) from which, experimental way it is possible to take the full systematized data set pseudoenglish. A basis: The-Zaur-us. Then way not complex manipulations to connect it in Ma-zaur-b-ul, and then to receive Mazarbul. Other variant of ethymology - zarb = an armour. scribe "to write", Windows. šribot.

 

However the structure - i.e. internal logic of word Mazarbul gives us other ethymology. And in this respect it is necessary to address to a latin word "Annales", where "Ann" - "year". As it is not difficult to notice Ma-it is a prefix and it(he) cannot have the given value, hence - zar - should matter "year". I think for anybody will not be a secret, that Anglo-Saxon fleeces Y, similar to the modern letter "Y", it was read as English "th". This letter can be met sometimes in England on ancient signboards such as Ye Olde Shoppe . In such cases the word "Ye" is read as "The". Following this simple rule it is easy "Year" to see in a word "thear", that in khuzdul the derivative from it(him) will look precisely "zar." Ma-probably. Máhnen "To remind, notify". Thus We have something like "Memory" + "Year" + "ful". Thus, mazar - a two-root basis of a word,-b a suffix,-ul the termination(ending).

 

No doubt, there is an obvious communication of language of dwarves with the Black Adverb and language Valar. This communication is precisely traced in a pronunciation, but even more in forms of words and word-formation. Not the small role in it is played with direct loan from Valarin, both in a case with the Aulë, and in case Sauron (though language the shaft has arisen much after all others). Both, not being philologists (one smith, other genic engineer) act as founders of languages. And as it is not difficult to guess both these adverbs - no more than spoiled by time or even intentionally - speech Valar. And though, at first sight it seems unpersuasive, it is necessary to pay attention to obvious conformity in these languages: shark (the old person) and tharkûn (the person with a staff). If to recollect a known riddle about the one who all over again goes on a four, then for two, and then for three the given comparison not seems such absurd. For all three languages were formed by the Professor - with some share of humor - just as there was a history about Major Road or - accordingly - in history Alboin from Lost Road. Besides here obviously appreciablly characteristic and for elfish languages mitigation primary -th- up to -s- or in this case -sh- (that in khuzdul these combinations have other pronunciation, rather than in Quenya is not so important ´ since and in German the same combinations, that in English are read differently).

 

Other similar example of SUCH loan will be a word: burzum (dark) and barazin (crimson) both, apparently, are connected to the blood having as is known darkly-red, and in a case with orks black color. Concerning to word Urukhai (the big orks) in a black adverb and, rkhs (orks) in language of dwarves, it is possible to put forward two hypotheses: the first - direct loan, and the second - an example of obvious relationship of languages. In the first case there is a question: as far as frequently by any people are perceived next peoples and as far as frequently they are deformed by rules of the language - recipient. It is possible to answer both questions: in most cases. If to follow the second hypothesis it is necessary to note, that at various branches of one group of languages there can be similar divergences that it is not difficult to track in the modern languages, shall tell English and German: Dark and Dunkel - both matter Dark. This is typical of slavic languages. Compare: Russian "molvă" and Ukrainian "movă". And here substitution of concepts is already characteristic for a generality English move to move, rus. Said (in popular speech: has set speech ). The given example specifies to us that that, apparently, a black adverb and language of dwarves, distant enough relatives. valarin with language of dwarves it is possible to count an attribute of direct communication certainly *kheled and *kelûth - a mirror, and also-nûl-, nala - the river, a vein and ulu, ullu - water in Valarin.

 

Special communication of language of dwarves with northern adverbs of people (and in world Arda, and on the Earth) allows to draw a conclusion, that Shatûr (clouds) looks obvious loan from German where Schatten matters - a shadow. Thus "cloud" is that creates a shadow or eclipses. These some kind of "loans" occured not only from the listed languages so not less logical prospective communication the dwarfe looks. Uzbâd with English Husband - where the first matters Sovereign Prince, and the second is meant by the Spouse, and in parallel can have in the German languages value Hus + bund (staad) i.e. the Statesman (including here can be it is available contamination, in fact hus - in Danish matters the court yard, a sort). However if to address to the comment on Christopher Tolkina's given word Uzbâd is not simply the governor, and the one who operates people. That allows us following string to a solution of secret of the second part of a word: The most widespread in this value is the word-combination Father of People. Hence, it is possible to speak that Uz-it on - dwarfish the Husband (compare also rus. Muzh), and bâd (aka baad) is People. That it is possible to treat through kurdish where E'badile, E'bd - matters "national", "people".

Tolkien specialized on the German languages, but studied also others - in particular, Semitic and slavic. In draft copies of "Hobbit" Beorn called Medwed. Quendish an equivalent of a word beleg "great" long time was velik (as the Great Sea on a card(map) from the Lost Legends - Haloisi Velik). In khuzdul loans from slavic languages such words, as look: kheled & zaram - (zr)kl & (o)zro, "make to elfish" the name of the letter certas - kirth (read: features), the name of orks - rakhas - (fear)-. Besides it is possible to assume, that in the known name of capital Angmara - Carn-dûm - disappears dwarfish an origin as Karndum it was necessary to say on dwarfish - "Tarndum", or on ereborish "Tsarndum". For the antiquity of this capital, apparently, ascends by times Belereand, and ereborish dwarves nice(famous) for the returning to ancient manners (in peak to dwarves of Moria) have added in the, kirth to a fleece-ts-in known cases transmitted by a letter -ß-. That apparently it was betraid in runa 1 of morian kirth, and in rune <| of erebor, such correlation of sounds is characteristic for example for sorbish languages. In this case we how not difficultly to guess, we collide (face) besides other Mr. Tolkien with linguistic "advances" with languages Indoeuropean a generality: so has developed in a history of toponymic that the name with a root "chörhn-" was preceded with the name "chërhvon-" (that besides confirms communication burzum and barazin).

 

* * *

 

Khuzdul - a word with very complex etymology as in the German languages does not meet an explosive spirant -kh-. However the treatment of a word khuzd through husz - from Hungarian "twenty" + final -d is probable. Or through Turkic and Iranian languages where *kazah *khazar and accordingly *hazer means (if to me does not change memory) "thousand". Just as etnonymic many modern peoples go back to the same word. It during too time well corresponds with hazad adûnaic - meaning "seven" (SD:247, in SD:427, 428 - hazid) as dwarves have been divided(shared) into seven houses.

However it is possible as well as in other languages the name of people goes back to a word the husband, the person . "Sąbr/Serb" the last century in Russia was the name the men, the peasant - farmer, the neighbor (in that part where primordially were Vyatichs - on the river Oka). Other similar example: etnonymic Mordva goes back to a word of "mord" - the man. As there is an adjective Khuzdul, khuzd is obviously a noun, instead of an adjective. And during too time in our opinion both versions have the right to existence, however what from them it is more preferable to tell difficultly.

Just as ethnic name many modern peoples go back to the same word. "Serb" in trite century in Russia was the name the muzhik, the peasant of the farmer (in that part where primordial were). Other similar example: ethnic name Mordva, goes back to a word of "mord" - the man. In our opinion both versions have the right to be, however the second is more preferable, as khuzd is obviously a noun, instead of an adjective.

 

* * *

 

Just as languages elves were graphically stylized under Latin, the adverb of dwarves too had the sample for imitation - certainly, it could be one of languages of Semitic group. And registration concerned more likely structure, rather than the external form. We knows, that runish the letter cirth was unidirectional and was written with is left on the right, as in overwhelming number of the European written traditions (exceptions are Etrusky, written on the right on left, and inhabitants of island Crete having the bidirectional letter). Reflecting above that that, could serve as a cliché for language, it is necessary to pay attention to "alphabet" of dwarves. In him there is a superfluous number of signs, (even at comparison with tengvar). At first it does not confuse, and such system of the letter even seems easy and more logically, rather than tengvar. However, hardly business concerns concrete inscriptions, at once there is a question: why in this case it is necessary to write so, instead of differently?

 

In our opinion all the matter is that cirth as against tengvar reflects not so much features of a concrete adverb, how many presence in uniform language at once several dialects or adverbs. Such state of affairs is typical of ethnos shared either the big distances, or sporadic and compact residing of his separate groups. Examples of this phenomenon it is possible to track at Serbs, Assyrians and Jews (and the last - most a vivid example of such division). Representatives of such ethnos without special efforts can understand each other; as distinctions between separate adverbs are not so significant, and language of them divides(shares) not so much, how many unites. We find the same state of affairs at dwarves Middlearth. Dwarves did not occupy any separate territory, and settled sporadic in hills and mountains of all Middlearth and behind his limits.

 

Thus, the inscription on Khuzdul practically always remained constant whereas the pronunciation varied depending on a place. For this reason, the same runics can have some sound values whereas for the majority of late alphabets based on the Cyrillic letter the opposite is typically. Partly both tendencies are characteristic and for Latin alphabet. In addition, the first is typical of the countries where earlier used runics were, and the second - for various East and the West-European countries where make Latin writing has arisen much later, works of Catholic missionaries.

 

Earlier I have mentioned Assyrian language as one of probable examples, not casually. In it(him) we have in many respects a similar picture. As at reflection Assyrian latin alphabet, we receive typically "khuzdulish" words. In it(him), besides a standard set of sounds there are as concordant with aspiration, long vowels, and one nonsyllabic. And they are combined in the similar image. That, certainly, at all does not mean that Khuzdul is Assyrian less than that Quenya is not medieval Latin of epoch Charlings age. But characteristic features are present. It is impossible to tell, about confidence, than Tolkien was guided, selecting languages - recipients, for Quenya and khuzdul, but it is possible to assume, that both languages, being are submitted by two greatest empires of an antiquity - Roman empire and Power of Assyrian - ideally approached(suited) to reflect two in many respects excellent(different) cultural an archetype.

 

That hypotheses did not look proofless, I bring the small table assirian:

 

English

Assyrian (Western)

assyrian (East)

The world

Shlomo

Shlama

The world to you

shlomo ' laykun

Shlama ' lokhun

What is your name?

mun ihtau shmokh?

Mo eeleh Shimukh?

My name is Ashur

shem ashur ithau

Shimmee Ashur eeleh

How you?

aykan ithayk?

Dakheewit?

Perfectly, Thanks

tob no, taudi

Spaay, Baseema

From what you the countries?

men ayno othro othe at

Min Ainee Atra tiyet?

I syrian Maronit

 

Has arrived from Lebanon

eno suryoyo marunoyo ithay

 

w-otheno men athro d-lebnon

Ana Suraya, Maronaya,

 

Ithyen min atra D'Libnan

In what year you have arrived to the country?

b-aydo shato ethayt l-hono athro?

b-Ainee Sheta ithyet L'aha Atra?

I have arrived to the country in 1981.

eno ethit l-hono athro ba-shnat olef tsha'mo tmonin wa-hdo.

Ana thelee L'awa atra B'sheta Alpa w'tish-imma w'tmani w'khda.

It is glad you to see

hode no d-ehzekh

khdeh lee b'Khzaytukh.

Remain with the World

Fush B'shlomo

Push B'shlama (or B'Shayno)

Go with the World

zel ba-shlomo

Khush (or Zil) B'shlama

Where you go?

Layko ozel at?

Layka B'eZal et? (or Layka B'rikhshet?)

I go to shop

Aino Ozilno L'shoqo

Ana Azin L'Shuqa (or Ana B'rikhshen L'shuQa)

 

Unfortunately, my knowledge in Assyrian are limited to this table, that limits opportunities for comparison a little. However, continuation is not still lost, and, as is known, follows

 

* * *

 

Further we shall consider the form of a word submitted by a lexeme bizâr. In this case we have no minimal aspectual pair to trace probable morphology of a word. However in language of Persians we find the same word in value "give" (an imperative from a verb guzâshtan - to place, allow). The word is submitted by two forms bizâr and biguzâr. It should seemed to result us in impasse. However, on the contrary, on this basis it is possible to assume that words of the given lines will be by means of substitution of a corresponding verb. In the list there is a form 1û2 so it is good to us known on combination Khazâd-dûm, and also widely submitted on by means of which the following list of morphemes is recreated:

 

 

Khuzdul

English

Khuzdul

English

 

*dûmam

The house

*bizâram

Valley

*dûmu

At home sing.n.

*bizâru

Valleys sing.n.

dûm

The house, hall

Bizâr

Valley

*dûmum

To houses

*bizârum

To valleys

*dûmud

At home pl.n.

*bizârud

Valleys

*dûmand

The house

*bizârand

To valley

1û2+fin

pr+1â2+fin

Besides presence of a doublet bizâr/biguzâr and guzâshtan allows us to assume, that the first part of a word bi-can have own value and in khuzdul, and in this case Gu-zâsh-t-an represents structural analogue of word Ma-zar-b-ul known to us ("Annalistic").

 

* * *

 

As to initially khuzdul adjectives we have: barazin "crimson", narag "darkness" (noun. In a role of an adjective), and also gamil "old", gabil "great", sigin "is long" and kibil, zigil "silver", - the adjectives formed from nouns: in the latter case it authentically an established fact.

 

It is possible to assume, that words sigin, barazin are in the same list) as khizdin, and it is possible gwedhrin: they compound.-in is the ending of an adjective, and sig-it is a root. The similar decision is given us with words: gamil, gabil, kibil and zigil.-il is, apparently, a root basis + the ending of adjectives. The same conclusion arises if to compare gabil with kurdish E'badile "national" and E'bd "people".

 

Azaghâl - one of words whose ethymology is really foggy; research of this word can give up as a bad job all insinuations concerning representation of forms of a feminine gender by leaning to root basis A-.

 

From combination Azanûlbizâr = A-zan-ûl-bi-zâr to us if to result literally, it is known Foggy Dale, thus Azan matters - "fog", and against that that this word can be a feminine gender speaks that fact that in a Hebrew form A1a23 - matters a derivative noun. In Russian having structure: a basis + [s't'v'] + the termination(ending).

 

If to address to early to sources we can find elfish ethymologies for names which now speak loans from Valarin. As the name the Aulë, the god of crafts, in Ethymologies was made from basis GAWA - to invent, invent, create. From an external history we know also, that L in Polish is said as English W. And as valarin name A3ûlêz (Aulë) was written through 3 ( an equivalent g which was written as -gh- in language of Orks, compare ork. "Fire" - ghâsh) probably from here it is possible to allocate experimentally root ghâl, (which in khuzdul "creativity" will matter).

 

Otherwise business with known word Azaghâl which cannot be a derivative in any way from allocated by us ghâl as besides a prefix in a word must there would be to be present a prefix is. If to assume, that Azaghâl it has been connected with Numenorish a word azgarâ - to wage war (SD:439) we will receive value "commander of warriors" or "warlord", instead of "soldier" as was supposed earlier in clause(article) Lisa Star Is old.

 

Mysterious ways Valarin also has influenced and other languages. It is interesting to note, that Valarin a word iniðil (the lily, or other large single flower) appears in Adunaic (Numenorish) as inzil a flower (in Inziladûn - the Flower of the West, UT:227). How the Word in Adunaic could from Valarin get? Probably through Khuzdul if the Aulë used this word in the language created by him for Dwarves. There are no almost any doubts, that on speech of ancestors Edain strong influence rendered language of Dwarves. If it so in khuzdul this word could play a role or an adjective, on what specifies probably final-il, or a noun with the form sing.n. nom.case. i-12i3 (compare i-glish-mêk).

 

 

It is experimentally possible to allocate the following components of words (translation into Russian literal):

 

A-= a-= a-a prefix.

 

Ai-= ai-= ai--a prefix "on"

 

Ai-mênu = ai-mênu = ai-1ê2-u - on you (LotR2/III-7, enc. F)

 

*Aghâl = aghâl = a-1â2 - "creator" (LR:358).

 

Aglâb = aglâb - a-12â3 language (adverb) (WJ:395).

 

Azaghâl = azaghâl - a-1a2â3 - "Warlord". Also it is curious to compare to a name or a nickname of the ork => Azog. That it could mean, I and did not manage to find.

 

*Azan = azan - a-1a2 "fog"

 

Azanûl = azanûl - a-1a2-ûl - "foggy" (RS:466).

 

Azanulbizar = azanûl-bizâr = a-1a2-ûl-bi-1â2 - Foggy Dale (LotR1/II-4). See also (RS:466).

 

Aya = aya = a pretext "on" (WR:20).

 

*Bad = bad = 1a2 - "people" - a component of two words Gund-a-bad and Uz-bad

 

*Badil = badil = 1a2+il - an adjective "national"

 

*Bar = bar = 1a2 - "horn"; words with structure i12a3 for khuzdul it is not characteristic.

 

Baraz = baraz = 1a2a3 , blood abbreviated name Barazinbar (TI:174).

 

Barazin = barazin - 1a2a3-in - "crimson", compare khizdin, gwedrin, sigin.

 

Barazinbâr = barazin-bâr - 1a2a3-in-1â2 - the Crimson Horn , not "red", namely "crimson" since baraz matters - "blood" (compare Nuluk-Khizdin).

 

Baruk = baruk - 1a2+uk - "poleaxes" (WR:20) noun. pl.n. nom.case., for sing.n. Helmut V.Peshem had been offered variant Buruk - for a singular, by an example khuzd - Khazad. That indirectly proves to be true presence of such words as Nuluk - "dwelling", and Nala - "veins".

 

Bizâr = bizâr - pr-1â2 - "dale" (RS:466).

 

Bund = bund = 1u23 - the chapter(head), top (TI:174) from Bund-u-shathur.

 

Bundushathur = Bundushathur = 1u2-u-1a2-ur - Top in clouds (TI:174)

 

Buzûn = buzûn = 1u2-ûn - "black- man or thing".

 

Buzun-dûsh = buzun-dûsh = 1u2-un-1u2 - letters. black a root (TI:167)

 

Dûm = dûm = 1û2 - the house, a hall - the collective form sing.n. From Khazad-dum.

 

Dûsh = dûsh = 1û2 - "root"

 

Felek = felek = 1e2e3 - "Adze" (PM:352).

 

Felak = felak = 1e2a3 - "to cut" (PM:352).

 

Felakgundu = felak-gundu = 1e2a3-1u23-u - letters. To cut a cave (the name given by Dwarves for his(its) art of work with a stone, it has been changed in in Felagund). (PM:352)

 

Fundinul = fundinul = 1u23-in-ul - "Fundinson" though component Fundin is a human name, theoretically it(he) can be spread out on two parts fund-in = 1u23-in. Also it is possible to assume that, from the point of view khazâd, this name was not perceived alien, accepted from the outside.

 

Gabil = gabil = 1a2-il "great"

 

Gabilân = gabilan = 1a2-il-an - "giant". The name of the river Sirion (WJ:336). Formation(education) of a noun by an example => adjective. + fin.1+fin.2. In Russian it would look as is great +-ii +-an.

 

Gabilgathol = gabil-gathol = 1a2-il-1a2-ol - the Great Fortress , sindarin Belegost (Silm10, LR:274)

 

Gamil Zirak = gamil zirak = 1a2-il zi-1a2 - Old Peak , a name of the smith from Nogrond (UT:76).

 

Gathol = gathol = 1a2-ol - "fortress" (in this case it is not difficult to form adj. gathil - "strong", in that case if etymologically "fortress" to go back to a root "").

 

Gund = gund = 1u23 or 1u2 - "cave".

 

Gundabad = gundabad = 1u23-a-1a2 Caves people.

 

Gunud = gunud = 1u2u3 - "caves" noun. pl.n. nom.case. (PM:352, compare 365); compare with khuzud - changed on "khazad" in a phrase Baruk khazad. Khazad ai-menu (LR:274,278), . Axes of dwarves. Dwarves on you .

 

*Guzashtan = guzâshtan = gu-1â2-t-an - the Inhabitant of a valley from bizâr (compare with other pair - iglish-mêk from aglâb - change of consonants radically words is available). Moreover, aglâb is obviously noun. sing.n. fem.s., and bizâr - noun. sing.n. man.s.) Thus we have two interconnected structures pr+1â2 and pr-12â3. it is so probable, that they will have in many respects similar examples of declination and formation(education) of adjectives and verbs.

 

Iglishmêk = iglish-mêk - i-12i3-1ê2 - language gesture

 

Kheled = kheled = 1e2e3 - "mirror" - the structure is similar felek, that once again emphasizes that as well as in the first, in this case we have noun. sing.n. nom.case.

 

Kheledzâram = kheled-zâram = 1e2e3-1â2a3 - "mirror - lake" is probable, in this case, lengthening of a vowel plays a role of an accent (compare Narag-zarâm). It is possible to draw the following conclusion - in a word there is a lengthening of the second from the end public radically if to it(him) precede in the first part of a word-e-or-i-if precede-á-or-u-the first is extended from the end public radically (exception makes sigin-tarâg).

 

*Khuzd = khuzd = 1u23 - the dwarfe, nominal noun. sing.n. nom.case.

 

Khuzûd = khuzûd = 1u2û3 - dwarves, nominal noun. pl.n. nom.case. (LR:274,278).

 

Khazâd = khazâd = 1a2û3 - dwarves, nominal noun. pl.n. .. (enc. F).

 

Khazad-dûm = khazad-dûm = 1a2a3-1û2 - the Dwarfe - hall, the -hall, Moria (LotR1/II-3).

 

Kibil-Nala = kibil-nala = 1i2il-1a2a - Silver Veins.

 

Mahal = mahal - 1a2a3 - "Power" - so was called the Aulëe by dwarves.

 

Mazarbul = mazarbul = 1a2a3-b-ul - letters. "Annalistic" (LotR1/II-5, Letters:186).

 

Mênu = mênu = 1ê2-u - "you" (WR:20).

 

Mîm = mîm = 1î2 - a name of the dwarf (Silm21).

 

Narag = narag = 1a2a3-"darkness" (RS:466).

 

*Naragin = naragin = 1a2a3-in - "dark", compare barazin, khizdin, gwedrin, sigin.

 

Naragzarâm = narag-zarâm = 1a2a3-1a2â3 - "Darkness - lake" (RS:466).

 

Nargûn = nargûn = 1a23-ûn - a place of darkness Mordor (RS:466).

 

Nuluk = nuluk - 1u2-uk - "Dwelling" - a root basis nul with value "vein". (compare Baruk - a root basis bar c value "horn").

 

Nulukkhizdîn = nuluk-khizdîn = 1u2-uk-1i23-în - "Dwelling - Dwarfish" i.e. not any certain dwarves, and dwarves in general. Compare nulukkhizdîn, kibilnâla - radicals N-L

 

Shathûr = shathur = 1a2-ur - "clouds" noun. pl.n. .. (LotR1/II-3, TI:174), it is possible "clouds".

 

Sigin = sigin = 1i2-in - long, compare barazin, khizdin, gwedrin.

 

Sigintarâg = sigin-tarâg = 1i2-in-1a2â3 - letters. "longbeards" (PM:321).

 

Tarâg = tarâg = 1a2â3 - "beards" in Sigin-tarâg (PM:321).

 

Tharbûn = tharbun = 1a2-b-un - the leader, the leader

 

Tharkûn = tharkun = 1a2-k-un - the person of a staff , dwarfish name Gendalf (LotR2/IV-5, UT:353).

 

Tumunzahâr = tumun-zahâr = 1u2-un-1a2â3 - letters. The hollow of Breakages in given word Tum - a morpheme "tum" (from eng. Tumble and also Q. Tumb "hollow") + final-un with value "-ina".

 

U-A prefix of a superlative degree.

 

Urukhtharbûn = urukh (s)-tharbun = u-1u2 (3)-1a2-b-un - "Big - Ork-Lesder" - a rare case of a three-compound word: probably and in khuzdul formation(education) of such "words - trains" was rare.

 

Uzbad = uzbad = uz-1a2 - letters. The husband people (compare Father of people the reference(manipulation) to Rome) - the governor of people (LotR1/II-4).

 

Zahâr = zahâr = 1a2â3 - letters. "Breakages" (Silm10), sing.n. nom.case. Will look *zuhr.

 

Zaram = zâram = 1â2a3 - "lake" noun. sing.n. nom.case. It is curious to notice, that all words having the form noun. sing.n. 123 designate something amorphous: "darkness", "blood", "power", lake, water , i.e. that has no the constant form. Though it is possible simply concurrence.

 

Zigil = zigil = 1i2-il - "silver" (TI:175). According to Tolkien's the latest explanation, zigil - "silver", that will be coordinated to one of variants of name Kelebrant - Zigilnâd (PM:279,286).

 

Zigilnâd = zigilnâd = 1i2-il-nâd - "silver river" (PM:279,286), name Kelebrant.

 

Zirak = zirak = pr-1a2 peak, height , probable etymology from English: the rack "rack" and-or the rock "rock".

 

Zirak-zigil = zirak-zigil = pr-1a2-1i2-il - Peak Silver , one of mountains above Moria, sindarian Celebdil.

 

-a--as a sheaf analogue of English ' s, in Russian - possessive case of a noun.

 

-i--

 

-u--it is probable, can act as a pretext - sheaf, analogue of Russian-ó-, English of; obviously, is the termination(ending) of a genitive case in a noun with structure-1û2+fin and pr+1â2+fin

 

-b--a suffix similar to Russian -n-/-sk-

 

-k--a suffix similar to Russian -rh-/-sk-, English -er

 

-r--a suffix similar to Russian -rh-/--, English -er

 

*t--a suffix similar to Russian -it-, Latin -it-

 

-an--final, in Russian corresponds(meets) -an,-in,-ii, English -an

 

-il--final, in Russian corresponds(meets) -iy/-aya, English ish ,-er

 

-in--final, in Russian corresponds(meets) -i, -in, -no,-en, German -en, English -er

 

-ol--final, in Russian corresponds(meets) -nya, -tsa, English less ,-dess, -ress, ness

 

-ul--final, in Russian corresponds(meets) -iy/-aya, English -ish,-ful.

 

-uk--final, forms a new noun pl.n., derivative on value, but not on sense. Probably, in some cases in English can correspond(meet) -ides

 

-un--final, in Russian corresponds(meets) -un-, -ets, English -an

 

-ur--final, in Russian corresponds(meets) -akh, English (in)-s,-es

 

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